John P. Holland's "Fenian Ram" submarine
  • John P. Holland's early submarine development was funded by an Irish group, the Fenians.
  • His first submarine was square rather than round and for one person that proved his theories of operating a submarine.
  • The second submarine, above, of 1883 was 31 ft long by 6 ft beam, 19 tons, 15 hp engine, crew of three.
  • Note the propeller at the left and the large rudder below.
  • The skipper looked out the portholes and "porpoised" to see when underwater.
  • A reporter called it the Fenian Ram.
  • The submarine performed like a charm on the surface and below, but firing its one torpedo tube was less successful.
  • It is now at the Paterson Museum in New Jersey as is his first small submarine.