- John P. Holland's early submarine development was funded by an Irish
group, the Fenians.
- His first submarine was square rather than round and for one person
that proved his theories of operating a submarine.
- The second submarine, above, of 1883 was 31 ft long by 6 ft beam,
19 tons, 15 hp engine, crew of three.
- Note the propeller at the left and the large rudder below.
- The skipper looked out the portholes and "porpoised" to
see when underwater.
- A reporter called it the Fenian Ram.
- The submarine performed like a charm on the surface and below, but
firing its one torpedo tube was less successful.
- It is now at the Paterson Museum in New Jersey as is his first small