Styles of Language

Styles or "Registers" of Language in America

STYLE OR REGISTER


EXPLANATION

FROZEN

Language that is always the same. For example: Lord's Prayer, wedding vows, etc.

FORMAL

The standard sentence syntax and word choice of work and school. Has complete sentences and specific word choice.

CONSULTATIVE

Formal register when used in conversation. Discourse pattern not quite as direct as formal register.

CASUAL

Language between friends and is characterized by a 400- to 800-word vocabulary. Word choice general and not specific. Conversation dependent upon non-verbal assists. Sentence syntax often incomplete.

INTIMATE

Language between lovers or twins. Language of sexual harassment.

—Martin Joos: Language and Cultural Diversity in American Education

Three-year old children from the families of professional and trade people have an average vocabulary of 1,116 words, while three-year olds from families receiving public assistance have a vocabulary of only 535 words (Hart & Risley).

People aculturated to generational poverty tend to speak often in the "Casual Register" and may have difficulty with the "Formal Register" that is expected in school and work settings, and therefore may be disciplined or fired at work and at school be poor performing.